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Scale Reviews

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Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA


With four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures whether a person has a habitual mental attitude in which self-distinctiveness is emphasized or, at the other extreme, an integration mindset in which assimilation and cooperation are emphasized.

Three, seven-point items compose the scale and measure how much a customer believes his/her best interests are guiding a particular salesperson’s efforts to solve one’s problem.

Fourteen, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure a person’s trait-like tendency to be concerned about the needs of others as well as expecting help from them when needed.

The degree to which a customer believes a particular salesperson tried to understand his/her needs with the best of intentions is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items measuring a customer’s belief that a salesperson tried to relate to him/her as a person and discussed other things than just the purchase.

How much a person reports thinking mostly about what is happening at the current time is measured in this scale using five, seven-point Likert-type items.  While none of the statements explicitly refer to the past or the future, the implication is that the focus is more on the present than on those other time periods.

Four statements are used in this scale to measure how much a person focuses his/her attention on the past.

The extent to which a person focuses attention on the future relative to the time spent on the past is measured with four statements.

The scale uses six statements to measure a person's chronic tendency to use an approach strategy to attain goals. The emphasis is on pursuing desirable ends rather than avoiding undesirable ones.

This scale is intended to measure the degree to which a person's goals relate to aspirations and accomplishments. Westjohn et al. (2009) used two somewhat different four item versions (explained in the Origin section) while Arnold and Reynolds (2009) used a five item version.  With both sets of authors, a five-point response format was used.