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This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


A customer's evaluation of the fairness of the policies and procedures used in handling a problem that has occurred is measured using four, seven-point Likert-type statements.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type items that assess a customer's beliefs regarding the fairness of the outcome provided by a business as a result of its service recovery process given the inconvenience experienced by the consumer.

The scale has four, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure how much a person places emphasis on the consequences of a decision being made rather than the process being used because of the belief that he/she is responsible for the former rather than the latter.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items assess the degree to which a customer believes a specified provider knows the type of experience desired by customers and, indeed, offers that quality of service. Given the instructions used with the scale items, the respondent should be focusing on the outcome of the service he/she has received in the past. The scale was called valence by Brady and Cronin (2001).