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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the self-reported likelihood that a consumer will shop at a specified store as well as recommend it to others. Baker, Levy, and Grewal (1992) called the scale willingness to buy while Baker et al. (2002) as well as Grewal et al. (2003) referred to it as store patronage intention.

Four, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a customer expects to visit a particular business in the future and continue the relationship indefinitely.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used in the scale to measure the degree to which a customer expresses an intention to shop at a store/website or use a particular company's services again in the indefinite future.

The scale is characterized by Likert-like items used to measure the inclination of a consumer to buy a specified good or use a service. The various versions of the scale discussed here employed between two and four items. Most of the studies appear to have used seven-point response scales with the exception of Okechuku and Wang (1988) that used a nine point format. Stafford (1998) modified the statements for use with services and called the scale conative attitude toward the ad

For a semantic-differential scale popularly used to measure purchase intention see Behavioral Intention (General).

Three, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to assess the relative number of times a person reports visiting a specified place. Hess, Ganesan, and Klein (2003) referred to the scale as number of past encounters with the organization.

A customer's identification with, loyalty to, and concern for a certain businesss is measured in this scale with Likert-type items.

Three, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure an aspect of service quality that involves the degree to which a customer thinks other patrons of a provider have an effect on the provider's ability to give satisfying service. Although not stated explicitly, the scale infers that the presence of other customers in the facilities when one is receiving service has an influence on the service provided.

The scale is composed of three items intended to produce a overall evaluation of a customer's s satisfaction level. Given that the scale was created for use with a service encounter it may not be quite as suited for use as a satisfaction measure with respect to physical goods.

Three Likert-type statements with a seven-point response format are used to assess the degree to which a customer feels he/she has a good relationship with a business.  The items are general enough to be used in a variety of situations.

Three, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure an aspect of the investment made by a retailer in its relationships with customers, with the emphasis being on a customer's belief that the store provides something extra to its regular customers in exchange for their loyalty.