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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


Using three items, the scale measures the degree to which a product is believed to have a sense of tranquility and well-being that it received in the production process.  

The degree to which a person believes a particular experience was peaceful and relaxing is measured with four, five-point items.


With six, five-point, uni-polar items, the scale measures feelings of stress and discomfort one has experienced in some context.

The scale is composed of six, seven-point Likert-type statements that are intended to measure the degree to which a person thinks about and is disturbed by thoughts regarding his/her death.  The scale was called existential insecurity by Rindfleisch, Burroughs, and Wong (2009) and fear of one's own death by the originator (Wittkowski 2001).

Nine, nine-point statements are used to assess the value placed by a person on an understanding of and desire to protect the welfare of all people and nature.

Six, nine point uni-polar items are used to measure how much a person reports having a feeling characterized as pleasant but with a low level of arousal. The scale was referred to as feelings-of-relaxation and felt relaxation by Gorn et al. (2004).

The scale is composed of six, seven-point Likert-type items measuring the utilitarian functional base of a person's attitude toward a certain product. This function has to do with helping one to maximize the ultimate rewards and minimize punishments of a behavior.

The scale is composed of uni-polar items used to capture a dimension of one's attitude toward a certain advertisement with the emphasis on how soothing and tender it is. This is in contrast to measures of one´s affective reaction to an ad. In other words, the object of the description is an ad, not merely one´s emotional response to it. See scales such as Affective Response to Ad (Warm Feelings) for examples of the latter type.

The scale is a three item, seven-point measure of one's attitude toward a specific advertisement with an emphasis on the extent to which it expresses some emotion-like qualities related to peacefulness. Note that the way in which the scale stem is phrased the scale measures what one thinks the ad expresses rather than the emotion one has experienced in reaction to the ad.

This measure is composed of several uni-polar items and is purported to measure the degree of "warm" feelings a consumer reports experiencing when exposed to a specific advertisement. The scale has been used with varying numbers of items.

There is an important distinction between this measure and one such as V4, #562. As Mooradian stated in the directions used with his scale, subjects were to describe "reactions to the ad, not to how you would describe the ad" (1996, p. 101). Admittedly, there should be a high correspondence between the two but they are still theoretically distinct constructs.