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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

perception

This scale uses ten, five point Likert-like items to assess how much a person who has recently engaged in a certain task describes his/her processing of information as being conducted quickly, almost effortlessly, and depending heavily on affect.

Five, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the degree to which a stimulus (or task) requires a person to devote high level of cognitive effort to process (or complete).

A 35-item, seven-point Likert-like scale is used to measure the clarity of mental images a person is able to evoke. This measures a person's general ability to imagine several types of sensations and is not limited to a particular sense or stimulus. It has been referred to by various names, but most of them include the original creator's name (Betts).

Six, nine-point, Likert-like items are used to measure the degree and ease with which a person reports images coming to mind while processing some specific stimulus. In the experiments conducted by Bone and Ellen (1992) as well as Miller and Marks (1992), the stimuli were mock radio commercials.

This 17-item, seven-point scale measures the degree and ease with which a person reports images coming to mind while processing some specific stimulus as well as the intensity of those images. Burns, Biwas, and Bibin (1993) referred to the measure as vividness.

A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person would feel crowded in a particular setting. The construct also carries with it the sense that perceived crowding is linked with stress and is an unpleasant subjective experience.

A six-item, seven-point semantic differential is used to measure the level of crowding a consumer perceives there to be in some specified shopping context. The measure was referred to as perceived retail crowding by Eroglu and Machleit (1990).

A five-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the cognitive resources such as attention and concentration a person reports bringing to bear on a recently completed consumption-related choice activity.

A six-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the probability that a consumer perceives the purchase of some specified product to be associated with six types of gain.

This three-item, seven-point scale is intended to measure the certainty with which a consumer perceives he/she has been able to reflect his/her evaluation of a soft drink accurately.