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The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensable in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University


A six-item, seven-point semantic differential is used to measure the level of crowding a consumer perceives there to be in some specified shopping context. The measure was referred to as perceived retail crowding by Eroglu and Machleit (1990).

A five-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the cognitive resources such as attention and concentration a person reports bringing to bear on a recently completed consumption-related choice activity.

A six-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the probability that a consumer perceives the purchase of some specified product to be associated with six types of gain.

This three-item, seven-point scale is intended to measure the certainty with which a consumer perceives he/she has been able to reflect his/her evaluation of a soft drink accurately.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used in this scale to measure the ease with which a person is able to process a visual stimulus. It is a combination of perceptual fluency (items #1 and #2) and conceptual fluency (item #3). Labroo, Dhar, and Schwarz (2008) referred to the scale both as ease of processing and a fluency index.

The scale is intended to measure the degree to which a person is immersed in some text (ad, story, poetry) such that its events and characteristics are more accessible than those in the person's real-world surroundings.

Seven-point items are intended to measure the degree to which a certain stimulus has focused a person’s thoughts on self rather than others.

The scale is composed of eight, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person has the sense of being at/in (presence) a remote/virtual environment (tele). Thus, afterwards the person is left with a feeling of having been psychologically transported to a "world" created at a website such that for a time it was as if they were there rather than the physical place where the viewing was done (home, office).

Six, seven-point items are used to measure the degree to which a person describes a webpage as being effective at getting and holding his/her attention. The scale also seems to measure a person's level of motivation to process information on the webpage during the exercise.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person says that his/her mind was focused on the task of browsing a website rather than on something else. The scale was referred to as the attention subfactor of a second-order construct that Wang et al. (2007) called flow. While this factor and the others measured by Wang et al. (2007) might as a set be viewed as composing flow, they do not individually appear to measure flow, thus, are not referred to it here by that term.