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Testimonial

I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope

perception

A three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person would feel crowded in a particular setting. The construct also carries with it the sense that perceived crowding is linked with stress and is an unpleasant subjective experience.

A six-item, seven-point semantic differential is used to measure the level of crowding a consumer perceives there to be in some specified shopping context. The measure was referred to as perceived retail crowding by Eroglu and Machleit (1990).

A five-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the cognitive resources such as attention and concentration a person reports bringing to bear on a recently completed consumption-related choice activity.

A six-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the probability that a consumer perceives the purchase of some specified product to be associated with six types of gain.

This three-item, seven-point scale is intended to measure the certainty with which a consumer perceives he/she has been able to reflect his/her evaluation of a soft drink accurately.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used in this scale to measure the ease with which a person is able to process a visual stimulus. It is a combination of perceptual fluency (items #1 and #2) and conceptual fluency (item #3). Labroo, Dhar, and Schwarz (2008) referred to the scale both as ease of processing and a fluency index.

The scale is intended to measure the degree to which a person is immersed in some text (ad, story, poetry) such that its events and characteristics are more accessible than those in the person's real-world surroundings.

Seven-point items are intended to measure the degree to which a certain stimulus has focused a person’s thoughts on self rather than others.

The scale is composed of eight, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person has the sense of being at/in (presence) a remote/virtual environment (tele). Thus, afterwards the person is left with a feeling of having been psychologically transported to a "world" created at a website such that for a time it was as if they were there rather than the physical place where the viewing was done (home, office).

Six, seven-point items are used to measure the degree to which a person describes a webpage as being effective at getting and holding his/her attention. The scale also seems to measure a person's level of motivation to process information on the webpage during the exercise.