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perception

The scale has three, seven-point semantic differentials that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that the parts of a particular stimulus fit together well.

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that something such as a good or service has a physical presence and can be accessed via the human senses. As used by Laroche et al. (2005), the items were reverse-coded so that the scale became a measure of intangibility.

Three, nine point semantic differentials are used to measure how quickly something appears to have occurred. Subjects in the studies by Gorn et al. (2004) described how fast they thought certain web pages had downloaded. The scale was referred to as perceived quickness.

Seven, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person processes an advertisement, particularly the model featured in the ad, such that it is related to one's self-concept. The emphasis of the construct is on the way the ad is processed rather than on self-concept itself.

This four item, seven point scale is intended to measure the perceived cognitive effort involved in answering a question. The scale was referred to by a variety of names: the effort index by Menon, Raghubir, and Schwarz (1995), the accessibility manipulation by Raghubir and Menon (1998), the cognitive effort index by Menon, Block, and Ramanathan (2002), and the difficulty index by Menon and Raghubir (2003).

Three, seven-point statements are used to assess the level of difficulty a person has with processing a specified stimulus. The object presented to subjects in the experiment by Zhu and Meyers-Levy (2005) was a radio commercial.

Four, seven-point statements are used to assess the degree to which a person focuses more on the style of an ad versus the brand-related information. The phrasing of the items makes them more appropriate for print ads than for commercials.

The scale is composed of three semantic differentials that are intended to measure a person's sense of the distance from one object to another. In the studies by Argo, Dahl, and Manchanda (2005) as well as Martin (2012), the scale was used to measure how participants viewed the distance of other shoppers to themselves.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the degree of focus a person has on a particular activity, as in an experiment, with the emphasis being on how much the person's attention was diverted from the task to something else.

Sixteen, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure the clarity of mental images a person evokes. The scale measures a person's general visual imagery ability rather than the clarity of a particular stimulus under investigation. The scale has been referred to by several users as the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire (e.g., Childers 1985; Marks 1973).