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Scale Reviews

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The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University


The scale is composed of six items that are intended to measure the extent to which a person views two objects as having a human-like quality and, in particular, being a pair in some way. Aggarwal and McGill (2007) used the scale with beverage bottles.

The full version of this scale has twenty-two statements that measure a person's preference for processing information in either a verbal or a visual modality. The measure was referred to as the Style of Processing (SOP) scale by Childers, Houston, and Heckler (1985).

The scale is composed of three, nine-point semantic differentials and measures the extent to which a person believes there are differences among some specified set stimuli. As used by Gürhan-Canli (2003), the stimuli were different products within the same brand family and the perceived difference in quality among those products was being examined.

The scale has three, seven-point semantic differentials that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that the parts of a particular stimulus fit together well.

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that something such as a good or service has a physical presence and can be accessed via the human senses. As used by Laroche et al. (2005), the items were reverse-coded so that the scale became a measure of intangibility.

Three, nine point semantic differentials are used to measure how quickly something appears to have occurred. Subjects in the studies by Gorn et al. (2004) described how fast they thought certain web pages had downloaded. The scale was referred to as perceived quickness.

Seven, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person processes an advertisement, particularly the model featured in the ad, such that it is related to one's self-concept. The emphasis of the construct is on the way the ad is processed rather than on self-concept itself.

This four item, seven point scale is intended to measure the perceived cognitive effort involved in answering a question. The scale was referred to by a variety of names: the effort index by Menon, Raghubir, and Schwarz (1995), the accessibility manipulation by Raghubir and Menon (1998), the cognitive effort index by Menon, Block, and Ramanathan (2002), and the difficulty index by Menon and Raghubir (2003).

Three, seven-point statements are used to assess the level of difficulty a person has with processing a specified stimulus. The object presented to subjects in the experiment by Zhu and Meyers-Levy (2005) was a radio commercial.

Four, seven-point statements are used to assess the degree to which a person focuses more on the style of an ad versus the brand-related information. The phrasing of the items makes them more appropriate for print ads than for commercials.