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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

perception

The scale is composed of three, nine-point Likert-type items intended to measure the degree to which a person describes a product as difficult to picture in the mind.

The three item, Likert-type scale measures the extent to which a consumer expresses a tendency to become absorbed in activity occurring within some sort of indoor environment (e.g., shopping mall) to such an extent that he/she loses track of time. The scale was called time distortion by Arnold and Reynolds (2003).

The Likert-type scale measures the extent to which a consumer expresses a tendency to devote attention to design characteristics of some type of structure such as a store, mall, or office complex.

The scale is composed of four statements that are intended to measure the extent to which an ad has stimulated a person to form mental images of what was being described verbally in the ad copy. It is not clear whether the scale taps more into a person's propensity for visualization or an ad's propensity for stimulating visualization; it appears to lean more toward the latter.

Four bi-polar adjectives are used to measure the degree to which a person perceives a stimulus to have a quality characteristic of a broader class of stimuli rather than one particular stimulus. Aggarwal and Law (2005) used the scale as a manipulation check to make sure two scenarios were similar in their levels of abstraction.

The scale is composed of four, nine-point bi-polar adjectives that measure the strength with which an advertisement has evoked imagery.

Six semantic differential items are used to measure the amount, complexity, and range of cognitive complexity evoked by an advertisement.  Half of the items are meant to tap into imagistic responses while the other half represent discursive responses.

The scale is composed of four, nine-point Likert-type statements that measure the degree to which a person agrees that the visual elements of an advertisement contain informative details relevant to the consumption of a particular good or service.

Four, uni-polar descriptors are used to measure the degree to which an advertisement triggers a visual image with aspects of status and achievement.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point uni-polar descriptors and measures the extent to which an advertisement triggers a visual image with a sense of vigor and youthfulness.