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The Marketing Scales website is a gold mine of information.  It is the only source that helps me understand the psychometric quality of the instruments used in past research.  I recommend that researchers bookmark this site . . . they will be back!
Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation


The three-item, seven-point semantic-differential is intended to assess the ease with which a stimulus has evoked visual images. The scale was used as a manipulation check in an experiment by Shiv and Fedorikhin (1999) with two snacks (chocolate cake and fruit salad) to see if the presentation mode of the snacks (real versus photographs) made a difference in the ease with which subjects could see themselves eating the snack. The scale was referred to as vividness by Shiv and Fedorikhin (1999).

The scale is composed of nine, seven-point Likert-type items measuring the degree to which a consumer believes that the unit price information provided on a grocer's shelf label to which he/she has been exposed was noticeable and stands out from other information on the label. As used by Miyazaki, Sprott, and Manning (2000), respondents were instructed that their answers are relative to shelf labels they are familiar with from grocery stores where they have shopped.

The scale is composed of uni-polar items measuring the degree to which a stimulus is described as being intense and lifelike. A Staple scale was used by Bone and Ellen (1992), but Miller and Marks (1992) and Babin and Burns (1997) used more typical Likert-type response formats.

Three, seven-point, Likert-type items are described as measuring the "activation of stored information in the production of mental images beyond what was provided by the stimulus" to which the subject was exposed (Babin and Burns 1997, p. 37).

The three-item, Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a subject perceives two or more ads to be of different size.

Five, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent to which a viewer of a television program felt that it was an actual account of some events rather than just a fictitious dramatization.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are purported to measure the number of images that come to mind while processing a stimulus.

A three-item, six-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person indicates that a stimulus has evoked images and triggered memories.

A three-item scale is purported to measure the length of time a person perceives a delay to have lasted. Responses were measured in hours.

A three-item, seven-point semantic differential scale is used to measure the perceived "activity" of a stimulus.