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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


The scale is composed of four, nine-point bi-polar adjectives that measure the strength with which an advertisement has evoked imagery.

Six semantic differential items are used to measure the amount, complexity, and range of cognitive complexity evoked by an advertisement.  Half of the items are meant to tap into imagistic responses while the other half represent discursive responses.

The scale is composed of four, nine-point Likert-type statements that measure the degree to which a person agrees that the visual elements of an advertisement contain informative details relevant to the consumption of a particular good or service.

Four, uni-polar descriptors are used to measure the degree to which an advertisement triggers a visual image with aspects of status and achievement.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point uni-polar descriptors and measures the extent to which an advertisement triggers a visual image with a sense of vigor and youthfulness.

The three-item, seven-point semantic-differential is intended to assess the ease with which a stimulus has evoked visual images. The scale was used as a manipulation check in an experiment by Shiv and Fedorikhin (1999) with two snacks (chocolate cake and fruit salad) to see if the presentation mode of the snacks (real versus photographs) made a difference in the ease with which subjects could see themselves eating the snack. The scale was referred to as vividness by Shiv and Fedorikhin (1999).

The scale is composed of nine, seven-point Likert-type items measuring the degree to which a consumer believes that the unit price information provided on a grocer's shelf label to which he/she has been exposed was noticeable and stands out from other information on the label. As used by Miyazaki, Sprott, and Manning (2000), respondents were instructed that their answers are relative to shelf labels they are familiar with from grocery stores where they have shopped.

The scale is composed of uni-polar items measuring the degree to which a stimulus is described as being intense and lifelike. A Staple scale was used by Bone and Ellen (1992), but Miller and Marks (1992) and Babin and Burns (1997) used more typical Likert-type response formats.

Three, seven-point, Likert-type items are described as measuring the "activation of stored information in the production of mental images beyond what was provided by the stimulus" to which the subject was exposed (Babin and Burns 1997, p. 37).

The three-item, Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a subject perceives two or more ads to be of different size.