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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


This seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person reports being loyal to what he or she has been using rather than trying something new and/or different. To be clear, it is the tendency be loyal within product categories that is being measured. Raju (1980) referred to the scale as repetitive behavior proneness.

A five-item, Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person asserts his/her opinion in an unyielding manner.

The measure consists of two 12-item, five-point scales, for which the difference in scores is purported to assess the degree to which a person is open to new and different experiences. This scale was originally referred to as innovativeness by Leavitt and Walton (1975), but later they and other authors called it a measure of open processing (Joseph and Vyas 1984).

This is a four-item, six-point, Likert-type scale measuring a shopper's innovativeness, particularly in relation to stores and brands. It was referred to as shopping innovation by Hawes and Lumpkin (1984).

This is a 15-item, Likert-type scale purported to measure a consumer's expressed tendency to stand up for his/her rights with marketers and their representatives. The scale covers three interaction situations: resisting requests for compliance, requesting information or assistance, and seeking redress. An 11-item version of the scale translated into Dutch was used by Richins (1987).

This is a Likert-type scale that measures a person's desire to understand how a product works. It was referred to as the Creativity/Curiosity component of the Use Innovativeness Index by Childers (1986) as well as Price and Ridgway (1983).

Three, six-point, Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's desire to own clothing of the latest style. See also Hawes and Lumpkin (1984) for some items from this scale combined with items from a fashion opinion leadership scale.