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Scale Reviews

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This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


Three statements with a ten-point Likert-type response format are used to measure the extent to which a consumer believes that a boycott is an appropriate and useful consumer activity in order to affect a company's decisions. The scale was called make a difference by Klein, Smith, and John (2004).

The five-point, four item scale seems to measure a person's evaluation of the "spokesperson" in an advertisement to which the person has been exposed. It may be best to view the scale as a general evaluation of a spokesperson since several different facets are referred to rather than a single facet such as likeability, persuasiveness, or trustworthiness.

Five, five-point bi-polar adjectives are used to measure a person's attitude toward the individual featured in an ad. This person might be a celebrity or an average person endorsing the product. Martin, Lee, and Yang (2004) referred to the scale as attitude toward the model.

Fifteen statements are used to measure a viewer's attitude regarding the use (placement) of branded products within the storyline of TV shows.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point statements intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that an advertisement has influenced him/her to be more knowledgeable or to think differently about a topic. Given this, the scale appears to be a measure of the extent to which an ad is effective in making changes in one's beliefs about some topic.

This semantic differential scale is intended to measure a person's attitude about another person, such as a celebrity, whose statement or likeness is used in an advertisement as a form of endorsement for a product.  A three item, nine-point version as well as four item, seven-point version are reviewed.

The scale is composed of ten, seven-point statements intended to measure the extent to which a person thinks a specified person has provided information that was helpful in making a purchase decision. As used by Gilly et al. (1998), one version was used by an information seeker to rate the source while another version was used by the sources to rate themselves.

The scale has been used in various forms to measure a person's tendency to provide information to others. Although it has been referred to as a measure of opinion leadership in all of the studies, an examination of the items suggests that it might be more accurate to think of it in more limited terms, e.g., the degree to which one provides information to others. Even if a person talks about a topic a lot that does not necessarily mean that the information is believed and acted upon (persuasion). These activities are critical indicators that one is, indeed, leading the opinions of others yet it is weak or missing from this scale.

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type statements that assess the degree to which a consumer views him/herself as an opinion leader with regard to shopping in general. This is in contrast to being an opinion leader for one specific product category.

The various versions of the scale are composed of items measuring the effectiveness of a brochure to change the attitude of a person toward some topic. The specific topics focused on in the scales were health-related. Although there were variations in the versions of the scales reported here, they were similar in that the emphasis in each was on gauging the reader's expressed intention to comply with the behavior suggested in the brochure.