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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


Five, five-point items are used to evaluate the claim portion of an advertisement. The one-word descriptors appear to measure the perceived strength of the ad's arguments.

Seven, seven-point items are used to measure how positive a person's evaluation of some particular advertisement is. Most, but not all, of the items lean toward cognitive (e.g., informative) rather than affective (e.g., likable) facets of an attitude.

The scale is purported to measure the perceived quality and legitimacy of the claims made in an advertisement. Although each of the uses cited here used a slightly different version of the scale, all had at least two items in common.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the propensity for a consumer to seek out the advice of others before making a purchase decision in some specified product category. Although this measure and the construct it is intended to capture were viewed by its developers (Flynn, Goldsmith, and Eastman 1996) as distinct from opinion leadership, they admitted that there could be some relationship. This was believed to be because opinion leaders could certainly seek information from others, but not all opinion seekers would lead others.

Six Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person not only has a wide range of knowledge regarding products to buy, places to shop, and other consumption-related activities but additionally influences others by passing on this information.  This construct is a form of polymorphism (e.g., Rogers 2003, p. 314).

Five, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to assess a person's stated ability to manipulate and deceive others.

A three-item scale is used to measure the degree to which a person expresses the desire to conform to a friend's expectations about a purchase decision. Two of the items had seven-point scales and one had a five-point scale. Bearden, Netemeyer, and Teel (1989) did not explain why they constructed the scale this way.

A five-item, Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person asserts his/her opinion in an unyielding manner.