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Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

photography

This three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a person believes that having to take photos with a particular purpose in mind negatively impacted the personal experience of what was being photographed. The goal of taking the photos is not named in the items but can be provided in the instructions if it is not obvious from the context.

A three-item, seven-point summated ratings scale measuring the level of picture quality a consumer expects in a particular camera. Expectations are supposed to be distinct from desires because the latter relates to beliefs about ''ideal'' product performance that led to achievement of higher-level values whereas the former are beliefs about performance benefits that will occur with a specified focal brand but may be short of what is ''ideal'' (Spreng and Olshavsky 1993, p. 172). Thus, desires imply a higher standard than do expectations.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of disconfirmation in beliefs a consumer has toward a particular camera. Disconfirmation refers to the results of the comparison made between expected product performance and actual performance.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of picture quality a consumer would like in a camera. The desire construct is supposed to be distinct from expectations because the former relates to beliefs about ''ideal'' product performance that lead to achievement of higher-level values whereas the latter are beliefs about performance benefits that will occur with a specified focal brand but may be short of what is ''ideal'' (Spreng and Olshavsky 1993, p. 172). Thus, desires imply higher standards than expectations.

A three-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the level of similarity in beliefs a consumer has toward a particular camera. Desires congruency refers to the result of the comparison made by a consumer of his/her desire for ''ideal'' product performance and the perceived actual performance of some focal brand.

A five-item, seven-point scale is used to measure the extent to which several statements that are made about the features of a specified brand of film camera are considered to be true.

The twelve item scale is intended to measure a person's attitude toward a digital camera he/she has been exposed to with an emphasis on behavioral aspects of the attitude, i.e., the extent to which the camera would be used. The measure was called product preference.

Ten, nine-point semantic differentials are used to measure how a person evaluates a camera. It appears that this scale is similar to many typical brand attitude measures except that several of the items here are specific to cameras rather than being broad enough to apply to other product categories.