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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

planning

A consumer’s general tendency to make purchases without planning and control is measured with six items.

Using five, five-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a consumer's desire to save time when shopping for groceries.

The degree to which a consumer monitors his/her spending-related thoughts and regulates purchase decisions using self-imposed standards is measured using ten, seven-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a person values planning, perseverance, and a future orientation is measured with five, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale is composed of six, six-point Likert-type items that measure a person's preference for planning as well as the extent to which the individual develops goals and uses reminders of those goals.  As explained below, there are five versions of the scale, varying on what they focus.

Five, seven-point Likert-like items are used to measure the chronic tendency to focus on the future rather than the present or the past.

The scale measures the degree to which a person thinks about the potential future consequences of his/her current behavior and how much he/she is influenced by these possible outcomes.  Twelve items are used to measure the construct.

The scale is composed of nine, seven-point Likert-type statements intended to measure the degree to which a person is concerned about time and engages in behaviors to manage its efficient usage.

The scale is composed of nineteen, five-point items that measure a person's chronic tendency to focus on either the present or the future.

Five, six-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person describes a behavior of his/hers as not being routine, planned, or anticipated. The behavior investigated by Unger (1981; Unger and Kernan 1983) was subjective leisure.  In the study by Guiry, Mägi, and Lutz (2006) the behavior was recreational shopping.