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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

positioning

The clarity with which a consumer understands what a brand represents to customers and the ease with which it can be described is measured with three statements.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that companies should noticeably position warning-related information in print ads rather than burying it where it is less likely to be seen. The scale was referred to as responsible advertising by Torres, Sierra, and Heiser (2007).

Three items are used to measure the degree to which a person views an organization as presenting a clear, understandable image of itself and what can be expected of it.

The scale uses seven items to measure a consumer's belief that two particular hotels are similar in various ways. Because the information Biehal and Sheinin (2007) provided to respondents about the hotels was limited, most of the items were phrased hypothetically since the respondents had to speculate about them.