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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

power

Using three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the belief that one has the ability to make situations turn out the way he/she wants.

Composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items, this scale measures how much a person believes that, in a particular past situation, other people had a lot of power over him/her.

Beliefs that companies have more power, authority, and design expertise than consumers as it relates to products are measured with six, nine-point items.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures how much a particular company makes a customer feel like he/she has some influence on it.

The scale uses four, seven-point Likert-type items to measure how much a person believes that employees at lower levels of an organization should not have much power and should follow those at higher levels in order for the organization to be successful.

This measure uses six, nine-point items to assess the extent to which a person believes that a company or set of companies have leadership in the marketplace and can influence suppliers, competitors, and consumers.

The extent to which a person feels a sense of personal control in a particular situation is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

The belief that an employee can reward and punish other employees is measured with three, seven-point items.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a type of psychological empowerment in which a person believes his/her actions make a positive difference in another person’s life.

How much one wants to be in control of his/her life, most particularly his/her job, is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.