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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

power

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a type of psychological empowerment in which a person believes his/her actions make a positive difference in another person’s life.

How much one wants to be in control of his/her life, most particularly his/her job, is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

A person’s belief that he/she was able to get others to do what was wanted in a certain situation is measured with six, seven-point Likert-type items.

The extent to which an object is considered to be powerful and aggressive is measured with three, seven-point items.

The scale uses three, five-point unipolar items to measure how much a person describes someone as having traits stereotypically associated with males.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials compose the scale and measure the extent to which a person feels strong and in-control at a particular point in time.  To be clear, this scale was created to measure a person’s state rather than a personality trait or enduring characteristic. 

A consumer’s belief that he/she does not have the ability to sway a brand and its employees toward his/her stance with regard to some issue or conflict is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale has three, nine-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person believes him/herself to lack control of things at the current point in time.  Unlike some measures of this construct, this scale it does not suggest or identify the entity that is believed to be in control, merely that the respondent believes he/she does not have control.  Also, unlike most other measures of the construct, this measure focuses the respondent’s attention on the moment rather than being something the person has believed over a long period of time.

This seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure a momentary self-centered and arrogant frame of mind.

Using three questions, this scale measures how much a person believes that at a particular point in time he/she had power over other people.