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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

power

The scale's five statements are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes in the equality of the sexes and gender roles.

The scale is composed of six, seven-point semantic differentials that measure a person's beliefs regarding the strength and self-reliance of someone.

The scale is purported to capture a person's frustration and irritation with a stimulus. In the studies by Taylor (1994; Taylor and Claxton 1994), a seven-point, seven-item scale was used. As a result of the studies by Richins (1997), a four-point, three-item scale was developed. In the studies conducted by Argo, Dahl, and Morales (2006), five, seven-point items were used.

The scale is composed of three, five point statements that assess the extent to which a person feels capable of rebuffing the attempts of others to get him/her to smoke. The scale was called self-efficacy at refusing cigarette offers by Pechmann et al. (2003).

Three unipolar items with a seven-point response format are used to measure the degree to which a person describes something as having a quality that indicates a lack of power and authority.

Five, nine-point statements are used to assess the value placed by a person on an attainment of social status as well as control over other people and resources.

Using three, seven-point Likert-type statements, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes important referent people expect him/her to use a product. Nysveen, Pederson and Thorbjørnsen (2005) used the scale with services but it appears to be amenable for use with goods as well.

Twenty, seven-point Likert-type statements measure the degree to which a person expresses tendencies to control others through aggressive, manipulative, and even devious means in order to achieve personal or organizational objectives. In marketing research, the scale has mostly been used with marketing professionals in the U.S. (e.g., Ho et al. 1997; Hunt and Chonko 1984). See Wirtz and Kum (2004) for a use of the scale with a mixture of Singaporean workers, professionals, and ultimate consumers.

The scale measures the extent to which a person believes that others consider him/her to be a good source of information about product prices.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure a person's negative feelings towards a specified country because of its economic power over one's own country.