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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The extent to which a person feels connected to and part of a specified group of people is measured with twelve, seven-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a person believes that expressing his/her opinion about a certain brand to someone will help the relationship is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

This three item, seven-point scale measures how close one feels to and identifies with a particular individual. 

The scale used four, seven-point Likert-type items to measure a person's belief that being a "member" (broadly defined) of an organization facilitates him/her performing better in a certain role.  The phrasing of the items can be tailored for a specific organization and a specific role a person plays with the organization, e.g., shopper, employee, volunteer.

How much a person expresses experiencing an undesirable subjective feeling of social isolation is measured using twenty, four point items.

Three, five-point unipolar items are used in this scale to measure how much a consumer has intense positive feelings about a brand. 

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a customer believes his/her relationship with a company is based on the personal service that comes from being treated as an individual.

To measure a customer's level of attachment to a business, this scale uses five, seven-point Likert-type items.  The scale is similar in nature to several measures of commitment in the database.  This one was called customer-company identification by Homburg, Wieseke, and Hoyer (2009).

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person expresses an emotional bond with an entity that involves people.  As used by Raggio and Folse (2009), the entity was a U.S. state.  It seems that the scale could be used with companies, stores, social organizations, universities, etc.

Three uni-polar items are used in this scale to measure the strength of the emotional connection a consumer feels with a brand.