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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


Seven-point semantic differentials are used to assess a person's global opinion of a company. The scale was called liking in the pretest by Becker-Olson (2003) and the version used by Rodgers (2004) was referred to as attitude toward the sponsor.  Kareklas, Carlson, and Muehling (2014) called their scale attitude toward the company.

Four, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's attitude about a company and its products. The scale was called attitude toward the brand by Mathwick and Rigdon (2004) but it seems to be more about the overall company than a brand.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point items that are intended to measure the extent to which a person believes the reputation of an advertising agency is a very important criterion that should be used by a client when making the selection decision.

The five-item, seven-point scale measures a person's attitude toward a company with an emphasis on the favorability of beliefs the person has about the company with regard to a range of business abilities. The scale was called company evaluation by Sen and Bhattacharya (2001).

The degree to which a person has a positive attitude about some specified product from some particular country is measured in this scale with three, nine-point Likert-type items.

This semantic differential scale measures a person’s overall evaluation of a specified business entity.