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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

resources

Three, seven-point items measure a person’s belief regarding the degree to which the family had enough money to pay for food and housing when he/she was growing up.

Three questions with seven-point response alternatives measure the extent to which a person believes a particular person is sought after in the job market.

A person’s belief that he/she has the necessary financial resources to not only pay bills but also feel relatively wealthy is measured using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a person believes that his/her resources are insufficient and that more are needed is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.  The items themselves are rather general.  Focusing participants’ attention on a particular situation and type of resource would need to be done in the context of the study or the questionnaire’s instructions.

With four, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s belief that he/she has a lot of time to do what is needed.  If all of the items are reverse-scored, the scale could be viewed as a measure of time pressure.

With three, seven-point semantic differentials, the scale measures to what degree a person believes that something was difficult to make, particularly because of the time and effort involved.  The object and the party that produced it are not stated in the items themselves and must be communicated to participants in the instructions or the context of the study.  

The belief that one has enough money for one’s needs and some to spare is measured with eight, seven-point Likert-type items.  To be clear, the scale does not measure if respondents are materialistic or if they are “rich” relative to others but merely that they view themselves as having sufficient funds for their needs.

This scale uses four, seven-point Likert-type items to measure the extent to which a owner/user of a brand has invested personal resources (time, money, effort) into having and maintaining a relationship with the brand.

A potential donor's opinion of the time and energy spent by a business in conducting some particular charitable or cause-related activity is measured with four, seven-point semantic differentials.

Three, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent to which a consumer feels a personal obligation to conserve natural resources, with an emphasis on energy resources.