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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


This scale uses five, seven-point Likert-type items to measure a person's preference for certainty and tendency to feel anxious when outcomes are uncertain.

This scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure a consumer's reason for placing items in a shopping cart at a website but not checking out due to concern about identity-theft as well as other privacy and security issues.

The scale assesses the extent to which a consumer is wary that a store is gathering his/her personal information and using it for business purposes.  The scale was used by Demoulin and Zidda (2009) with respect to a loyalty card issued by a store, thus, they referred to the measure as perceived risk associated with the new loyalty card.

The degree to which a person views fate as a powerful force that influences events and outcomes is measured in this scale using six, ten-point Likert-type items.  Fate has a sense of predestination while luck is more transient.  Despite the distinction, the scale seems to capture aspects of both.

A four-item, five-point scale is used to measure the importance of several risk attributes related primarily to the performance of some specified product or economic aspects of its purchase.

This four item Likert-type scale is purported to measure a consumer's level of perceived risk associated with the purchase of a  specified product.

The scale uses six, seven-point items to measure the probability that a consumer perceives the purchase of a specified product to be associated with a mixture of six types of losses.

This is a three-item, five-point scale measuring the purchase-related importance of the belief that a specified product may not be enjoyed after its purchase as much as expected.

This scale uses three, seven-point, Likert-like items to measure the likelihood that a consumer would forego much if not all methodical prepurchase information search activity and instead make a rather immediate product selection. The measure was referred to by Murray (1985, 1991) as Buy.

This seven-point Likert-type scale measures the degree to which a person reports being willing, even eager, to try new and/or unfamiliar stores and products.