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Testimonial

The Marketing Scales Handbook is indispensible in identifying how constructs have been measured and the support for a measure's validity and reliability. I have used it since the beginning as a resource in my doctoral seminar and as an aid to my own research. An electronic version will make it even more accessible to researchers in Marketing and affiliated fields.
Dr. Terry Childers
Iowa State University

risk

This four-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures the extent to which a person expresses a tendency to buy the newest products within a specific product category and not wait for feedback from others before doing so.

It is a three-item, five-point Likert-type scale measuring the degree to which a person expresses a desire to take chances and try new things.

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type statements and attempts to assess the degree to which a consumer engages in exploratory behaviors, particularly when it comes to trying out new and different products.

The scale is composed of 14 sets of items intended to measure the extent to which a person seeks situations in which arousal levels are expected to be low and avoids situations that might generate high arousal.

Five, five-point Likert-type statements are purported to measure the extent to which a person is willing to seek out and engage in risky activities.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the extent to which a person is concerned about making a wrong decision when selecting among various alternatives in a specified product category. The category studied by Moorthy, Ratchford, and Talukdar (1997) was cars.

The scale is purported to measure the perceived degree of financial risk associated with purchase of a specified product. Financial risk has to do with the uncertainty and monetary loss a person thinks could be incurred if a product does not function at some expected level. Shimp and Bearden (1982) used a three-item, nine-point version of the scale, whereas the version used by Grewel, Gotlieb, and Marmorstein (1994) had three items and a seven-point response format.

Three semantic differentials are used to measure the importance of a product to a consumer in terms of the confidence (or lack thereof) the consumer has about making the right choice. This appears to be a measure of the uncertainty component of perceived risk but it has been viewed by its users as a form of involvement.

Three semantic differentials are used to measure the difficulty a person would have in making a purchase decision with regard to particular product category, with an emphasis on the extent to which the consumer would be personally disturbed about making a bad decision. Perhaps this means that the consumer thinks his/her pride would be damaged by making a poor choice. This appears to be a measure of the consequences component of perceived risk but it has been viewed by its users as a measure of a form of involvement.

Four, five-point Likert-type statements are purported to measure the extent to which a consumer considers some specified product class or brand as being hazardous to use. The product class examined by Griffin, Babin, and Attaway (1996) was power lawn tools.