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Testimonial

As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings

sadness

The scale is composed of six, nine-point uni-polar items that measure one’s expressed level of unfavorable feelings.  While the scale appears to be amenable for use in a wide variety of situations, it seems to be best suited for occasions in which respondents have experienced something that did not go as well as expected.

The degree to which a person feels responsible and sorry for a particular incident is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

How a person reports feeling (affectively) is measured with six, nine-point semantic differentials.

The extent to which a person reports feeling sorry and blameworthy for something is measured with three, seven-point semantic-differentials.

Four, five-point unipolar items are used in this scale to measure one’s feelings of shame and remorse.

The degree to which a person felt bad at a point in time, with an emphasis on guilt, is measured with three, nine-point uni-polar items.

How ashamed and worthy of blame a person felt at some point in time is measured in the scale with five, seven-point uni-polar items.

A person's anticipation of experiencing guilt-related feelings if he/she engages in a certain action is measured with three items.

The degree to which a person feels sorry and personally responsible for something that has happened is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

A person's feeling of embarrassment and insecurity is measured in this scale with five uni-polar items.  The scale seems to be flexible for use in a variety of contexts.