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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

sadness

The extent to which a person wishes he/she did not engage in certain behaviors against a specified person or entity is measured with three items.  (Although not explicitly stated in the items, the implication is that the actions taken were negative in some way.)

With four, seven-point items, the scale measures how much a person believes that he/she will feel unhappy and powerless if there is a failure to experience what was expected with regard to a product choice decision.  The items are phrased such that the focus is on making the choice based on how the options vary on one critical product attribute.   

How positively or negatively a person feels about an object is measured with ten, five-point items.  Unlike many, if not most, measures of affect, the items in this scale are full sentences rather than semantic differentials.  The sentences are easily modified for a variety of objects.

The scale is composed of six, nine-point uni-polar items that measure one’s expressed level of unfavorable feelings.  While the scale appears to be amenable for use in a wide variety of situations, it seems to be best suited for occasions in which respondents have experienced something that did not go as well as expected.

The degree to which a person feels responsible and sorry for a particular incident is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

How a person reports feeling (affectively) is measured with six, nine-point semantic differentials.

The extent to which a person reports feeling sorry and blameworthy for something is measured with three, seven-point semantic-differentials.

Four, five-point unipolar items are used in this scale to measure one’s feelings of shame and remorse.

The degree to which a person felt bad at a point in time, with an emphasis on guilt, is measured with three, nine-point uni-polar items.

How ashamed and worthy of blame a person felt at some point in time is measured in the scale with five, seven-point uni-polar items.