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This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


It is a seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measuring a consumer's propensity to buy brands that have price-off offers despite the amount of money involved. This measures a general tendency rather than the likelihood that the behavior occurs for any particular product category. The authors of the scale called it cents-off proneness (Burton et al. 1998; Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton 1995; Lichtenstein, Burton, and Netemeyer 1997).

Seven, seven-point Likert-type items measure a consumer's attitude about end-of-aisle displays and the tendency to buy products displayed on them. This measures a general interest in displays rather than the likelihood that the behavior occurs for any particular product category. Lichtenstein, Burton, and Netemeyer (1997) and Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton (1995) referred the scale as end-of-aisle-display proneness whereas Burton et al. (1998) called it display proneness.

Seven items with a seven-point response format are used to measure perceptions about the ability of an advertising medium to accomplish sales-related goals. As used by King, Reid, and Morrison (1997), the scale was meant to be completed by respondents knowledgeable with media planning.

Three, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a consumer's expressed tendency to buy products perceived to be good values for the money.

Seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the perceived value of a deal involving a certain product offered at a certain price. The product examined in the study by Urbany, Bearden, and Weilbaker (1988) was televisions and a three-item scale was employed. In the study by Grewal, Marmorstein, and Sharma (1996), a four-item version of the scale was used to evaluate a shirt.

Four, five-point Likert-type items are intended to measure a shopping orientation characterized by a consumer's focus on buying products that are low priced, on sale, or are considered to be good values for the money.

Three items are purported to measure the extent of sensitivity a consumer has to sale-promotion activity at a shopping center. Two of the items were answered using a five-point Likert-type scale. The response format for the third item was apparently open-ended, and answers of four or more were collapsed into one category, yielding a five-point scale (0 to 4).

The three, five-point items are intended to capture a consumer's attitude toward the use of coupons for grocery products.

This is a four-item, six-point, Likert-type scale that measures a person's interest in ads involving sales. It was referred to as advertising special shopper by Lumpkin (1985).