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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


Three, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the extent to which a customer believes the employees of a store or company satisfactorily solve problems that arise as part of a service exchange.

Depending somewhat on the version used, the scale measures the degree to which a customer of a business expects to continue buying from it in the future and/or engages in positive word-of-mouth communications about it. Due to the particular subsets of items used by Srinivasan, Anderson, and Ponnavolu (2002) and Verhoef, Franses, and Hoekstra (2002), they referred to their scales as word-of-mouth and customer referrals, respectively.

A customer's beliefs regarding the fairness with which he/she was treated by a particular firm's personnel in its efforts to deal with a problem is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a customer who lodged a complaint thinks that the resolution of the problem was appropriate is the subject of the scale. In the study by Tax, Brown, and Chandrashekaran (1998) the respondents were given this scale after being told to remember a recent service experience that led to their lodging a complaint. Similarly, in Smith, Bolton, and Wagner (1999; Smith and Bolton 2002) subjects were asked to imagine a visit to a service provider they had been to before and what they would do if a service failure occurred.

The scale has been used to measure the degree to which a consumer's expectations regarding a decision are not met. The three-item version has been used most (Oliver 1993; Oliver and Swan 1989a, 1989b; Wallace, Giese, and Johnson 2004, Westbrook 1987), but a two-item, seven-point version has been used as well (Oliver 1980).

The scale is composed of four, seven-point statements that are used to assess the degree to which a person reports having complained to a provider regarding some recent problem with the quality (or lack thereof) of service received. Whereas most scales have measured the likelihood of complaining in the future, this scale measures the degree to which it occurred in a past situation.

The scale measures the relative value of a specified brand to a consumer compared to similar competing brands due to its name (above and beyond its features and quality).  It is composed of four, five-point Likert-type statements.

Five, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a customer believes that competiting service providers could do a better job than one's current service supplier.

Five, seven-point Likert type items are used to measure a customer's attitude regarding the extent to which a website has been responsive to problems and shown that it cares, particularly in the post-sales phase of the purchase process (billing, delivery, returns).

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type statements measuring the degree to which a consumer believes that purchase of a product featured in an ad he/she has been exposed to would be risky.