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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


In its fullest form, the scale is composed of twelve Likert-type items and measures a consumer's degree of satisfaction with a product he/she has recently purchased. Most of its uses have been in reference to the purchase of cars but Mano and Oliver (1993) appear to have adapted it so as to be general enough to apply to whatever product a respondent was thinking about. Mattila and Wirtz (2001) adapted a short version of the scale to measure customers’ satisfaction with a shopping experience. Seven of the items were modified by Hausman (2004) for use with the patient-physician encounter.

The scale is composed of three, nine-point Likert-type statements intended to measure the degree to which a consumer believes a decision he/she has made regarding a service-related purchase was the right one. Due to the third item in the scale, the facility used to provide the service is an integral aspect of what is being measured.

The scale is used to measure the degree to which a customer who lodged a complaint is pleased with the way the problem was resolved. The context in which the respondents were given this scale was after being told to remember a recent service experience that led to their lodging a complaint. Four, five-point Likert-type items compose the scale.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point items attempting to assess a consumer's expected level of satisfaction prior to some behavior such as buying a certain product. The implication is that the respondents have been exposed to some information by the time they respond to the measure (e.g., promotion, word-of-mouth) but they have not committed themselves in the form of a purchase yet.

Four, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure a theater attendee's confidence in the quality and consistency of the shows produced by a specified theater. The scale was called trust by Garbarino and Johnson (1999).

The scale has three, seven-point Likert-type statements and is intended to measure a customer's belief that a specific retailer has employees who get to know their regular customers over time and care about them. The scale was referred to as interpersonal communication by De Wulf, Odekerken-Schröder, and Iacobucci (2001).

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items measuring the displeasure a consumer experiences after a specific purchase decision when he/she believes that another brand should have been selected. Although it may be most natural for the scale to be completed by consumers with respect to their own regret, in the study by Tsiros and Mittal (2000) it had to do with the attribution of regret on others based on knowledge of what they had experienced. In other words, one party believes that another party who has made a "bad" purchase decision is feeling regretful about it.

The scale is composed of three items used to measure a theater attendee's perception of the quality of acting observed at a specified theater. The items utilized different anchors on their response scales. The scale was called actor satisfaction by Garbarino and Johnson (1999).

The scale measures the degree to which one reports experiencing a pleasing feeling. It appears like the scale can be used to measure the emotional response to a stimulus (e.g., Mano and Oliver 1993) or a mood that one feels prior to exposure to a stimulus of interest (e.g., Mano 1999).

The scale's three, seven-point items are intended to capture the extent to which a consumer has taken action after being dissatisfied with a product by going to the marketing channel member(s) perceived to have some responsibility for resolving the problem. Actions such as complaining to a marketer and returning products to a store are sometimes referred to as voice behaviors (e.g., Moorman 1998, p. 85). The timeframe referred to in the scale is a year and the product category is food; both of these appear to be amenable for change if need be.