You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Search Now


The Marketing Scales website is a gold mine of information.  It is the only source that helps me understand the psychometric quality of the instruments used in past research.  I recommend that researchers bookmark this site . . . they will be back!
Bob Moritz
Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation


The scale is composed of three items intended to produce a overall evaluation of a customer's s satisfaction level. Given that the scale was created for use with a service encounter it may not be quite as suited for use as a satisfaction measure with respect to physical goods.

The scale is used to measure a person's satisfaction with a product after the selection/purchase has been made and probably after consumption/usage of the product has occurred. The context for the scale's usage was at the end of an experiment when subjects had made a selection between a variety of brands (Fitzsimons (2000; Huffman and Kahn 1998). The full version of the scale has six items whereas the abbreviated version has three.

In its fullest form, the scale is composed of twelve Likert-type items and measures a consumer's degree of satisfaction with a product he/she has recently purchased. Most of its uses have been in reference to the purchase of cars but Mano and Oliver (1993) appear to have adapted it so as to be general enough to apply to whatever product a respondent was thinking about. Mattila and Wirtz (2001) adapted a short version of the scale to measure customers’ satisfaction with a shopping experience. Seven of the items were modified by Hausman (2004) for use with the patient-physician encounter.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point items attempting to assess a consumer's expected level of satisfaction prior to some behavior such as buying a certain product. The implication is that the respondents have been exposed to some information by the time they respond to the measure (e.g., promotion, word-of-mouth) but they have not committed themselves in the form of a purchase yet.

Four, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure a theater attendee's confidence in the quality and consistency of the shows produced by a specified theater. The scale was called trust by Garbarino and Johnson (1999).

The scale has three, seven-point Likert-type statements and is intended to measure a customer's belief that a specific retailer has employees who get to know their regular customers over time and care about them. The scale was referred to as interpersonal communication by De Wulf, Odekerken-Schröder, and Iacobucci (2001).

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items measuring the displeasure a consumer experiences after a specific purchase decision when he/she believes that another brand should have been selected. Although it may be most natural for the scale to be completed by consumers with respect to their own regret, in the study by Tsiros and Mittal (2000) it had to do with the attribution of regret on others based on knowledge of what they had experienced. In other words, one party believes that another party who has made a "bad" purchase decision is feeling regretful about it.

The scale is composed of three items used to measure a theater attendee's perception of the quality of acting observed at a specified theater. The items utilized different anchors on their response scales. The scale was called actor satisfaction by Garbarino and Johnson (1999).

The scale measures the degree to which one reports experiencing a pleasing feeling. It appears like the scale can be used to measure the emotional response to a stimulus (e.g., Mano and Oliver 1993) or a mood that one feels prior to exposure to a stimulus of interest (e.g., Mano 1999).

The scale's three, seven-point items are intended to capture the extent to which a consumer has taken action after being dissatisfied with a product by going to the marketing channel member(s) perceived to have some responsibility for resolving the problem. Actions such as complaining to a marketer and returning products to a store are sometimes referred to as voice behaviors (e.g., Moorman 1998, p. 85). The timeframe referred to in the scale is a year and the product category is food; both of these appear to be amenable for change if need be.