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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

self-efficacy

Five, nine-point Likert-type items compose the scale and measure a person’s confidence that one will successfully manage his/her health by engaging in a certain activity.  (The activity can be specified by the researcher.)

Four, seven-point Likert items are used to measure the degree of confidence a person has in his/her capability to learn a particular task and competently perform it.

The extent to which a person believes that he/she was able to control the level of privacy experienced in a particular situation is measured using four, seven-point, Likert-type items.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items measure how much a person believes he/she can stick to a budget, avoid spending when necessary, and accomplish financial goals.

A person’s confidence in his/her ability to accomplish financial goals is measured with seven Likert items.

Six, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure one’s self-efficacy with regard to accomplishing goals in life despite obstacles.

A consumer’s belief that he/she does not have the ability to sway a brand and its employees toward his/her stance with regard to some issue or conflict is measured with four, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale has three, nine-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person believes him/herself to lack control of things at the current point in time.  Unlike some measures of this construct, this scale it does not suggest or identify the entity that is believed to be in control, merely that the respondent believes he/she does not have control.  Also, unlike most other measures of the construct, this measure focuses the respondent’s attention on the moment rather than being something the person has believed over a long period of time.

The degree to which a person believes that people have a lot of control over their athletic abilities and performance is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items. 

The scale measures the degree to which a person believes that he/she has the motivation and the ability to control and achieve desired outcomes.  The scale is general in the sense that it can be used in a wide variety of contexts.