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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

self

Three Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's opinion of the degree to which a particular product has the ability to remedy some unsatisfactory aspect of one's physical appearance.

Three semantic differentials are used to measure the importance of a brand or product category to a consumer, with an emphasis on the extent to which the product is viewed as expressing something about the user to others.

Six, seven-point Likert-type statements evaluate the degree of concern a person has toward the external appearance of his or her body (e.g., skin, hair, posture). This is in contrast to similar scales that measure a person's excessive concern about physical appearance or concern for the person's appearance in clothes.

Five, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a customer perceives a salesperson to have greater interest in self than in the customer. Williams and Spiro (1985) viewed this scale as measuring the self-oriented dimension of customer communication style, which stresses a lack of empathy and interest in self more than others.