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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


Four, six-point items are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that some specific ads he/she has seen made him/her focus on self and feel singular and special.

Three Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's opinion of the degree to which a particular product has the ability to remedy some unsatisfactory aspect of one's physical appearance.

Three semantic differentials are used to measure the importance of a brand or product category to a consumer, with an emphasis on the extent to which the product is viewed as expressing something about the user to others.

Six, seven-point Likert-type statements evaluate the degree of concern a person has toward the external appearance of his or her body (e.g., skin, hair, posture). This is in contrast to similar scales that measure a person's excessive concern about physical appearance or concern for the person's appearance in clothes.

Five, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a customer perceives a salesperson to have greater interest in self than in the customer. Williams and Spiro (1985) viewed this scale as measuring the self-oriented dimension of customer communication style, which stresses a lack of empathy and interest in self more than others.