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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


The degree of a customer's annoyance with a business and/or its employees because of some sort of service failure is measured in this scale using three, six-point items.

Four items are used in this scale to measure the extent of the negative affective reaction a customer experienced after a service failure.  The emphasis is on the affective aspect of the response (what the person felt) rather than behavioral (what the person wanted to do).

Using four, seven-point items, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes there are benefits to being a customer of a company that come in the form of preferential treatment.

Four, seven point statements are used to measure the extent to which a customer expresses more attitudinal and behavioral loyalty to the individual actually giving the service rather than the company/store the employee works for.

The degree to which a person believes that an employee who has provided some service did not have an appropriate demeanor is measured in this scale using three, 10-point Likert-type items.  The scale was called social failure by Chan, Wan, and Sin (2009) to emphasize the distinction they made between this type of service failure and one that was related to the something unrelated to the provider, such as the food quality of a restaurant.

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which the employee of a service provider was viewed as being sincere during an encounter.  In the study by Winsted (1997), respondents were asked to think of a recent experience with a waiter or waitress in a restaurant.

Six, seven-point bipolar adjectives measure the degree to which a consumer perceives a store to have helpful employees and service. The scale was referred to by Dickson and MacLachlan (1990) as personnel.

This four-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a consumer believes that as stores become more self-service oriented, there is less personal interaction between salespeople and customers. The scale was referred to by Forman and Sriram (1991) as perceived depersonalization of the shopping experience (PDS).

This is a five-item, five-point scale apparently measuring a shopper's attitude toward a specified store on the basis of a few basic attributes such as cleanliness, variety, friendliness, and check cashing policy. In the study by Kerin, Jain, and Howard (1992), the scale was used with reference to a shopper's most frequently patronized grocery store.

Five, six-point Likert-like items are used to measure the degree to which a person expresses satisfaction with several aspects of his/her insurance.