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Scale Reviews

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I have relied on the Marketing Scales Handbooks over several years in academic and industry roles and look forward to using the newest edition. A seven on a seven-point satisfaction scale!
Tom Prinsen, Ph.D.
Global Manager Market Intelligence, Biomet Orthope


The extent to which a person desires a unique identity, distinct from others, is measured in this scale using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type statements that are intended to measure the degree to which a consumer views there being a strong association between him/herself and others who use a particular brand.  The scale was called communal-brand connection by Rindfleisch, Burroughs, and Wong (2009).

The degree to which an object is perceived to be representative of a category of objects is measured in this scale with semantic differentials. A three-item, 11-point version of the scale was used by both Loken and Ward (1990) and Ward, Bitner, and Barnes (1992). Loken and John (1993) used a four-item, seven-point version of the scale.

The scale has three, seven-point semantic-differentials that measure the degree to which a person describes an experience as being common and occurring frequently or as atypical and rarely happening. Although used by Hess, Ganesan, and Klein (2007) with regard to a service failure, the items themselves are general enough to apply to a wide variety of events one might experience.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that a group of people who he/she has interacted with made him/her feel like they all had something in common. As used by Van Dolen, Dabholkar, and Ruyter (2007), respondents were evaluating a chat-based service they had experienced that was for gathering information about investment funds from other customers and a financial advisor.

The scale uses seven items to measure a consumer's belief that two particular hotels are similar in various ways. Because the information Biehal and Sheinin (2007) provided to respondents about the hotels was limited, most of the items were phrased hypothetically since the respondents had to speculate about them.

Three semantic differentials are used to measure the extent of perceived compatibility between the endorser of a product in an advertisement and the brand being featured. With a different scale stem or instructions, the items seem to be amenable for measuring other types of fit, e.g., merger of two companies, a company's sponsorship of a particular event/cause, co-branding of products, etc.

The scale is composed of seven, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure the perceived level of similarity and fit between brands from two different companies.

The seven item, seven-point semantic differential scale measures the degree to which a person views two entities as being congruent. In the case of Becker-Olson (2003), the scale was used to measure how well a company is representative of a certain industry. In contrast, Simmons and Becker-Olsen (2006) assessed the fit between a firm and a charitable cause.

Three, seven-point items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that another person (specified) has similar "taste" and judgment in evaluating a certain object.