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similarity

Three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that an endorser is similar to him/herself.

Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that there is a similarity between a brand's image and his/her own image. Swaminathan, Page, and Gürhan-Canli (2007) referred to the scale as self-concept connection.

The scale is composed of seven Likert-type statements that are intended to measure the degree to which a consumer views there being a similarity and connection between him/her self-image and that of a particular brand.

Four, seven-point semantic-differentials are used to assess a customer's attitude regarding the extent to which an interaction that occurred with an employee is typical and widespread across an organization. As used by Hess, Ganesan, and Klein (2007) the interaction was negative but the items seem to be amenable for use when a positive experience has occurred. They called the scale attributions of globality.

The purpose of this three item, seven-point scale is to measure the degree to which a person noticed there being differences among alternatives he/she was exposed to. The scale was called familiarity by Mogilner, Rudnick, and Iyengar (2008).

The scale is composed of three statements that measure the degree to which a viewer of a commercial believes that he/she feels what the characters in the advertisement feel.

The scale is composed of three, nine-point semantic differentials and measures the extent to which a person believes there are differences among some specified set stimuli. As used by Gürhan-Canli (2003), the stimuli were different products within the same brand family and the perceived difference in quality among those products was being examined.

The scale is composed of three, nine-point semantic differentials and measures the degree to which a person believes some features are shared by a specific set of objects or are generally shared among a wider set of objects. 

The degree to which a person believes that he/she belongs to a particular group of people is measured with three Likert-type statements.  To the extent that the person views him/herself as being part of the group and refers to it in determining attitudes and behaviors then it is a reference group.

The scale is composed of three statements that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that being associated with a certain group would be either positive or negative. To the extent that a person believes the association would be very positive then the group can be called an aspirational group. At the other extreme, if a group would not be desirable to identify with then it is referred to as a dissociative group.