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Scale Reviews

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Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA


Using three, nine-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person views another person as having beliefs that are  consistent with his/her own.

This scale uses three, seven-point items to measure the extent to which a person desires a shared identity with others.

The extent to which a person desires a unique identity, distinct from others, is measured in this scale using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type statements that are intended to measure the degree to which a consumer views there being a strong association between him/herself and others who use a particular brand.  The scale was called communal-brand connection by Rindfleisch, Burroughs, and Wong (2009).

The degree to which an object is perceived to be representative of a category of objects is measured in this scale with semantic differentials. A three-item, 11-point version of the scale was used by both Loken and Ward (1990) and Ward, Bitner, and Barnes (1992). Loken and John (1993) used a four-item, seven-point version of the scale.

The scale has three, seven-point semantic-differentials that measure the degree to which a person describes an experience as being common and occurring frequently or as atypical and rarely happening. Although used by Hess, Ganesan, and Klein (2007) with regard to a service failure, the items themselves are general enough to apply to a wide variety of events one might experience.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that a group of people who he/she has interacted with made him/her feel like they all had something in common. As used by Van Dolen, Dabholkar, and Ruyter (2007), respondents were evaluating a chat-based service they had experienced that was for gathering information about investment funds from other customers and a financial advisor.

The scale uses seven items to measure a consumer's belief that two particular hotels are similar in various ways. Because the information Biehal and Sheinin (2007) provided to respondents about the hotels was limited, most of the items were phrased hypothetically since the respondents had to speculate about them.

The seven item, seven-point semantic differential scale measures the degree to which a person views two entities as being congruent. In the case of Becker-Olson (2003), the scale was used to measure how well a company is representative of a certain industry. In contrast, Simmons and Becker-Olsen (2006) assessed the fit between a firm and a charitable cause.

Three semantic differentials are used to measure the extent of perceived compatibility between the endorser of a product in an advertisement and the brand being featured. With a different scale stem or instructions, the items seem to be amenable for measuring other types of fit, e.g., merger of two companies, a company's sponsorship of a particular event/cause, co-branding of products, etc.