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Scale Reviews

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The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta


Three Likert-type statements are used to assess a person's opinion of the extent to which a model in an advertisement is similar to him/herself, with an emphasis on physical similarity.

The scale has been used to measure a consumer's perceived homogeneity with an actor or model in an advertisement. Visual similarity is just part of the comparison. Whittler (1991; and Dimeo 1991) used a four-item, fifteen-point version of the scale whereas Appiah (2001) used a five-item, seven-point version.

The degree to which a person perceives some stimulus to have characteristics that make it fit into or belong to some category is measured with four, nine-point semantic differentials. The items are general enough to be useful in a wide variety of contexts.  In the study by Campbell and Goodstein (2001), respondents judged the extent to which a particular beverage was typical of "soft drinks."

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type items used to measure the degree to which a person thinks that the product-related information provided by a technological device or system is similar to what could be gathered in-person.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point statements intended to measure the extent to which a person thinks he/she is similar to someone else in terms of such things as values, likes, experiences, and tastes in products.

This three-item, seven-point Likert-type scale attempts to assess a person's sense of the extent to which a certain brand is used by participant's in a specific event.

The scale uses three, seven-point Likert-type sentences to assess a person's sense of the similarity between the images of an event and a specified brand that could be associated with it in some way, e.g., sponsorship.

Four, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to assess a consumer's opinion regarding the extent to which all brands in a specified product category are of similar quality and there are no meaningful differences. The scale was referred to by Batra and Sinha (2000) as degree of quality variation in category.

The seven-item, seven-point scale measures the extent to which a person views a proposed new product with the same brand/family name as a familiar product as being similar in numerous ways.

Four Likert-type items are used to measure how typical and common a respondent perceives a salesperson to be on the basis of a depiction to which he or she has been exposed. In the study by Babin, Boles, and Darden (1995), a car salesperson was being evaluated on the basis of a written scenario.