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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

skepticism

The scale has three, seven-point items which measure a person’s disbelief that a particular company is one of the worst ones in its industry as reported by a major consumer organization.  The scale instructions frame the situation as hypothetical but minor changes could make the scale amenable for use with an actual event.

The degree to which a person is apprehensive and distrusting of other people in general is measured with four, seven-point unipolar items.

Seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a consumer’s skepticism about improvement claims being made about a product by the company.  A two- and three-item version are discussed.

Three, seven-point items are used to measure a shopper's belief that a particular retailer advertises sales prices in order to attract customers even though the prices have not been discounted much. 

A person's doubt that the regular price of a product was stated truthfully in an advertisement is measured with three, seven point Likert-type items.

The degree to which a person believes that a store uses low-price guarantees to attract customers even though it does not have the lowest prices in the market area is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type items intended to measure the believability of claims made in the promotion of a so-called "green" product.  Although the statements are amenable for use with respect to claims for "green" products in general, they may be best suited for use with one product at a time.

Three statements are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that a certain store uses a form of sales promotion that is insincere and that misleads customers.

Three items measure the level of doubt and uncertainty a consumer has with the veracity of some stimulus. In the study by Babin, Boles, and Darden (1995), the stimulus being evaluated was a car salesperson as described in some text.  In the study by Taylor, Halstead, and Haynes (2010), the focus was on the "marketer" who supposedly had placed a certain ad in a telephone directory.

The scale is composed of four statements with a seven-point Likert-type response format and is intended to measure the degree to which a person is doubtful that a claim made by a marketer about its "low prices" is true.