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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


Six, seven-point items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that those in his/her important reference groups (friends, family, co-workers) would approve if he/she donated to charities to help improve social equality.

Five items with a 100 point response scale measure the strength of a person’s belief that his/her donation to a particular charity will help recipients, with an emphasis on improving their social status.

A person’s feeling of uniqueness and status (though not necessarily superiority) is measured in the scale with three, nine-point items.

Eight, nine-point Likert-type items are used in the scale to measure a person’s feeling of standing out from the crowd and being the center of attention.

This scale uses four, seven-point Likert-type items to measure the degree to which a person believes that advertising makes people buy and consume products too much.  As discussed further below, the items are phrased with respect to advertising in general but they can be easily adapted for use with particular media.

A person's attitude regarding his/her financial position relative to peers and to the previous year is measured using a five-item, nine-point scale.

How much another person is believed to be engaged in conspicuous consumption of a brand in order to impress others and/or gain their approval is measured with three, seven-point items.  To be clear, the scale items are phrased to measure what the respondent believes motivates another person's behavior rather than one's self.

The three-item, five-point scale measures the degree to which a person feels that engaging in one of two behaviors would be a signal of his/her status and superiority to others.

The extent to which a person believes that others view him/her as socially inferior is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.

A person's feeling of superiority over someone else in particular because of something the former (the respondent) has received is measured with three statements.