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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The four, seven-point items in this scale measure the degree to which a person describes an object such as a product or person as having the quality of elegance, beauty, and status. The scale was called perceptions of luxury index by Hagtvedt and Patrick (2008).

The Likert-type scale is intended to assess the degree that the look and beauty of a product play an important role in a consumer’s purchase decisions and product usage.

A Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person views an organization of which he or she is a member as having a positive reputation in the community. The organization studied by Bhattacharya, Rao, and Glynn (1995) was an art museum while Arnett, German, and Hunt (2003) studied a university.

The degree to which a person believes that the number and quality of a person's possessions are indicators of success in life is measured using five point Likert-type statements. Alternative versions of the scale, varying in their length, have been developed and tested.

Three semantic differentials are used to measure a person's evaluation of his/her identity-related actions. One version of the scale has to do with possessions, what a person thinks about the products used in the performance of a role. The other version has to do with performance itself, what a person thinks about how well a role is played.

Five-point statements are used to measure the amount of support a person receives (or recalls receiving) from his or her family while growing up. The items have been used as two subscales to separately measure intangible and tangible support but the items have also been used together to measure both forms of support simultaneously.

Three, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the degree to which a person views a product one uses as conveying meaning to others about his/her personality and, beyond that, impressing them. Nysveen, Pederson and Thorbjørnsen (2005) used the scale with mobile services but the phrasing of the items appears to make them amenable for use with goods as well.

An eight-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person desires another person's possessions and resents others with the desired possessions. A shorter version of the scale was used by O'Guinn and Faber (1989; Faber and O'Guinn 1992). See also Richins (2004).

The scale uses semantic differentials to measure an aspect of source credibility related to beauty and classiness. The scale has been used to test the attractiveness of print ad models (Bower and Landreth 2001) and celebrity endorsers (Ohanian 1990, 1991; Till and Busler 2000). While the focus in Ohanian (1990) was on the development of a semantic differential version of the scale, Likert and Staple versions were developed as well though the exact phrasing of the items was not given in the article and are not reviewed here.

The degree to which a consumer views a brand as having personality-like characteristics typified by good looks and charm was measured in the original version of the scale with six items and a five-point response format.  A three item version was used by Venable et al. (2005) with regard to brand personality for the nonprofit context.