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Testimonial

Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA

status

This scale has six, six-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that a product is either a "luxury" or a "necessity" for the majority of people.

The scale has six, seven-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the social-adjustive functional base of a person's attitude toward a certain product. This function has to do with helping one to gain approval in social settings.

The scale is composed of seven, five-point Likert-type statements measuring how a person compares his/her family's standard of living (financial well-being, status, happiness) compared to the typical people shown on television, with the emphasis being on families shown in commercials.

The scale is composed of five, seven-point items that are intended to measure the extent to which a person believes the reputation of an advertising agency is a very important criterion that should be used by a client when making the selection decision.

Four, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to assess the utility derived from the perceived ability of a particular product to enhance its user's self-concept and social approval.

The intelligence and success-related characteristics a person associates with those who smoke is measured with four, nine-point semantic differentials. Two versions of the scale were used. One had to do with how a person thinks that smokers are perceived by others (reference group evaluations) and another focusing on how a person thinks that smokers perceive themselves (self evaluations).

The three-item, seven-point scale attempts to measure the significance of one's racial status in his/her life.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point uni-polar items that measure how much a person considers a specified object to be high class and exclusive.

Three, seven-point uni-polar items are used to measure how much a person considers prestige to be an important criterion when shopping for a specified product. The product category examined by Kirmani, Sood, and Bridges (1999) was jeans.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items intended to measure a person's attitude about some specified sporting activity with an emphasis on how it enhances participants' social status.