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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

superiority

This eight-item scale measures one’s need to perform better than others and the desire to win in interpersonal situations.

Using seven, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the attitude that there is inequality of social groups and some are superior to others.

With four, seven-point items, the scale measures how much better the most recent model of a brand is compared to previous models.

The extent to which a person expresses beliefs supporting inequality among social groups is measured with sixteen, seven-point items.

A customer’s belief that something such as a particular brand or company is better than the alternatives and that he/she is loyal to it, is measured using three, nine-point Likert-type items.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure how well made a particular company’s products are believed to be.

Using three questions, this scale measures how much a person believes that at a particular point in time he/she had power over other people.

The extent to which a person reports feeling powerful at a particular point in time is measured with three questions and a seven-point response format.  To be clear, this is a measure of a person’s state rather than a personality trait or enduring characteristic.

The degree to which a patron believes a certain place serves his/her goals better than the available alternatives is measured with five, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale has four, seven-point items that measure a person’s unease and displeasure that a group he/she belongs to is inferior to other such groups and is not performing as well.  The criteria on which the groups are being compared are not explicitly identified in the items and can be specified in the questionnaire.