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Three statements are used to measure the degree to which a consumer views the utility received from two different forms of a product to be greater than the utility of the best single form.

The three item, nine-point Likert-type scale measures the relative ease a consumer experienced in selecting one product from among several and confidence that the decision could be explained to someone who questioned it. The scale was called justifiability by Heitmann, Lehmann, and Herrmann (2007).

The degree to which a consumer believes that a good or service is better at some function than other products is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type statements. Because this is one of the five key characteristics that are thought to influence adoption of innovations (Rogers 2003), the construct is most typically examined with respect to new products rather than mature ones.

This semantic-differential scale measures a person's evaluation of a brand with an emphasis on its quality relative to other brands.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type statements are used in the scale. Together they measure the degree to which a person expresses commitment to buying from a certain e-retail website in the future and not switching to another website. The scale was referred to as e-loyalty by Srinivasan, Anderson, and Ponnavolu (2002).

Four, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure a person's belief that buying from a certain company is preferable to buying from others. The scale was called cognitive loyalty by Harris and Goode (2004) and was used with respect to online stores but it appears to be amenable for use with a variety of vendors.

The degree to which a consumer believes that a specific brand of a product is better than the competition based upon the advertising he/she has been exposed to is assessed with seven-point Likert-type statements.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type statements measuring the degree to which a consumer believes that the information provided in an advertisement facilitates an understanding of the product's quality.

A customer's global sense of the quality of service provided by a specified organization is measured in this semantic differential scale.  The items are flexible for use in a wide variety of situations where a quality-type of measure is needed.

Six, seven-point items are used to measure the extent to which several attributes are characteristic of some video product or class of products. Although each item could be viewed as a belief, summarizing them implies that they are related to each other and are tapping into a common attribute (product quality). Given the directions used by Gürhan-Canli and Maheswaran (2000), their scale measured one's attitude toward a class of products manufactured in a specified country. They referred to the scale as country-of-origin beliefs.  The items would be best fit televisions but might also be appropriate for DVRs and camcorders.