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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

symbolism

A person’s general attitude about a logo is measured with three, five-point semantic differentials.

A consumer’s belief that a product or set of products connote warmth and passion in some way is measured with three, seven-point Likert-type items.  The product, the producer, and the manner in which “love” is conveyed are not specified in the items themselves.

With three, seven-point Likert-type items, the scale measures the degree to which a person believes that the products one chooses express something about him/her.   

A person’s belief that a product would help give him/her a distinctive image is measured using three, five-point Likert-type items.

Using three items, the scale measures the degree to which a product is believed to have a sense of tranquility and well-being that it received in the production process.  

This three item scale measures the degree to which a person thinks a product is characterized by happiness that was implanted in it by the production process.  

The scale has three items and measures the degree to which a person thinks the production process for a product gave it a sense of love.  Two slightly different versions of the scale are provided in this review.  They are similar in the statements but differ in their response formats.  One is a Likert-type scale that is useful for measuring one product/brand while the other is for comparing two products/brands.

Using three items, this scale measures the degree to which a person thinks a product has a pride-like quality that was implanted in it during the production process.

Four, nine-point items measure how positive a person feels about a brand and how well it represents the ideal values one has for his/her country.

A consumer’s attitude about the sophistication and exclusiveness of a particular brand is measured using eight, seven-point Likert-type items.