You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Search Now


Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA


How much an object is considered to be touchable and concrete is measured with three, seven-point semantic differentials.

With three Likert-type items, the scale measures a person’s attitude regarding the naturalness and solidness of a mediated environment that he/she has experienced. 

Using four, nine-point items, the scale measures the degree to which a consumer considers a retailer to be close and tangible rather than distant and abstract.  As an example of the construct, a retailer that only has a website would likely be viewed by consumers as more psychologically distant than a brick-and-mortar store that is physically close to them.

A seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used in measuring the degree to which a person thinks an educational institution has grounds, buildings, equipment, and professors that are neat and clean.

This four-item, five-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person thinks a hospital, and its rooms in particular, are appealing and clean.

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure the degree to which a person believes that something such as a good or service has a physical presence and can be accessed via the human senses. As used by Laroche et al. (2005), the items were reverse-coded so that the scale became a measure of intangibility.

Five-point statements are used to measure the amount of support a person receives (or recalls receiving) from his or her family while growing up. The items have been used as two subscales to separately measure intangible and tangible support but the items have also been used together to measure both forms of support simultaneously.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type statements measuring an aspect of service quality focused on the degree to which a customer says the provider knows that certain physical aspects of the service are important to patrons and the respondent is pleased with them.

Four, bipolar adjectives are purported to measure a person's opinion of the type of appeal being used by the source of a message, varying from emotional at one extreme to rational at the other.  It could easily be used with advertising but could also be used with appeals made by charities, speeches by politicians, sale pitches by sales people, etc.

This scale measures how dependable a customer views a service provider to be based upon the quality of its most visible attributes. The version by Parasuraman, Zeithaml, and Berry (1994b) goes a bit further and measures perceptions of tangible assets compared with the desired  level (the performance level the company can and should deliver).