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Saint Xavier University, Chicago


This is a four-item, five-point Likert-type scale measuring the degree to which a customer perceives a salesperson to have been interested and diligently attempting to complete a particular sales transaction. Williams and Spiro (1985) viewed this scale as measuring the task-oriented dimension of salesperson communication style, which is goal directed and purposeful.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the amount of money, time, and/ or effort a consumer perceives that a car dealer invested in a transaction.