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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

task

The scale is composed of six, nine-point Likert-type items that measure the degree of pleasure a person reports feeling during a recent experience which heavily involved the person's creativity.

This scale has four, nine-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the degree to which a person believes that during a recent experience he/she was free to express his/her creativity.

Three, nine-point Likert-type items are used to measure how difficult it was for a person to develop a concept of a particular product that was described with aspects of two other products or brands, e.g., a parent name and a sub-brand name. The scale was called difficulty of concept formation by Jo (2007).

Four, seven-point items are used in the scale to measure the degree to which a person believes that a choice he/she has made was free from coercion or pressure to select a particular option. The scale was called self-determination by Mogilner, Rudnick, and Iyengar (2008).

Three items with a seven-point Likert-type response format are used in this scale to measure the degree to which a person reports feeling in control of some object or activity.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the degree to which a person says that his/her mind was focused on the task of browsing a website rather than on something else. The scale was referred to as the attention subfactor of a second-order construct that Wang et al. (2007) called flow. While this factor and the others measured by Wang et al. (2007) might as a set be viewed as composing flow, they do not individually appear to measure flow, thus, are not referred to it here by that term.

Four, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the extent to which a person reports that a lot of thought was given to an advertisement he/she was exposed to and it helped him/her to imagine using the product. The scale was called depth of processing by Smith, Chen, and Yang (2008).

The scale is composed of four, seven-point items that measure the extent to which a person reports paying attention to an particular advertisement vs. something else during a recent exposure episode. Briley and Aaker (2006) referred to the scale as index of available attention resources.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point semantic differentials that measure the degree to which a person feels that there is not enough time available to perform a specific task. In the study by Suri and Monroe (2003), the scale was used with subjects who had been asked to evaluate some product-related information in a certain period of time.

This four item, seven point scale is intended to measure the perceived cognitive effort involved in answering a question. The scale was referred to by a variety of names: the effort index by Menon, Raghubir, and Schwarz (1995), the accessibility manipulation by Raghubir and Menon (1998), the cognitive effort index by Menon, Block, and Ramanathan (2002), and the difficulty index by Menon and Raghubir (2003).