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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type items that are used to measure the degree to which a person places emphasis on the process of making a decision because of the belief he/she is responsible for the procedure used to make the decision rather than the outcome.

The scale has four, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure how much a person places emphasis on the consequences of a decision being made rather than the process being used because of the belief that he/she is responsible for the former rather than the latter.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point semantic differentials measuring the degree to which a person feels certain about something. As used by Urbany et al. (1997), confidence was assessed by respondents with respect to judgments they made of product quality. Similarly, Zhang and Budda (1999) examined the confidence respondents had in their perceptions of product performance.

The three, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure a respondent's attitude toward the process of responding to some questions they have just been asked. The context for the scale's usage was at the end of an experiment (Huffman and Kahn 1998).

Four, five-point Likert-type statements are used to assess the helpfulness of some product-related information in a brand rating task. It is assumed that the information has been provided to a respondent as part of a study and the concern is how relevant the respondent found the information to be in completing the product evaluation task.

The four-item scale measures the care taken by a subject in a study he/she has just participated in. Additionally, one item taps into the subject's motivation to process information related to the focal stimulus of the study.

Three, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the level to which a consumer was "window shopping" and simply "looking around" during some specific shopping trip. This is opposed to the type of search that occurs when shopping time is focused on getting items towards which purchase intentions have already been developed.

The scale is composed of three, seven-point semantic differentials that are used to assess a person's thoughts and feelings with regard to a task he/she has recently engaged in. The measure was referred to as task enjoyment by Park, Jun, and MacInnis (2000).

The six item, seven-point semantic differential scale attempts to measure a person's opinion of a measure task he or she has just engaged in. The scale assesses several facets of the task such as how easy it was and how well the measure allowed the respondent to express his or her attitude.

Five items are used to measure the relative level of resources (time, money, effort) spent by a shopper in a store during a recent visit. Three of the items were Likert-type in nature whereas the two other items were open-ended, and ratio-level answers were apparently expected from respondents.