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Testimonial

The Handbook series is a significant compendium of scales published in the most impacting marketing literature. I am a proud owner of the series and hope to be able to continue collecting the volumes in the years to come.
Dr. Emanuel Said
Lecturer in Marketing, University of Malta

task

Five items are used to measure the relative level of resources (time, money, effort) spent by a shopper in a store during a recent visit. Three of the items were Likert-type in nature whereas the two other items were open-ended, and ratio-level answers were apparently expected from respondents.

Four semantic differential items are used to measure the degree to which a subject, who has just taken part in an experiment, indicates being seriously concerned with the activities requested of him or her. As written, the items focus on tasks related to looking at ads and evaluating products.

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the degree to which a person views a choice task as being likable and familiar.

This is a six-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measuring the amount of time, effort, and/or money a consumer perceives were put into making a transaction with a car dealer.

The scale is composed of seven, seven-point Likert-type items that are intended to measure the amount of time and effort a consumer thinks a salesperson put into a deal. Oliver and Swan (1989b) reported using the full seven-item version of this scale whereas previously (1989a) they used an abbreviated version in their analyses (see below).

A seven-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the amount of time and effort a consumer perceives that he/she put into dealing with a salesperson. Oliver and Swan (1989b) reported using the full seven item version of this scale whereas previously (1989a) they had used an abbreviated version in their analyses.

This is a four-item, five-point Likert-type scale measuring the degree to which a customer perceives a salesperson to have been interested and diligently attempting to complete a particular sales transaction. Williams and Spiro (1985) viewed this scale as measuring the task-oriented dimension of salesperson communication style, which is goal directed and purposeful.

Seven, seven-point Likert-type items are used to measure the amount of money, time, and/ or effort a consumer perceives that a car dealer invested in a transaction.