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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam

tension

Seven statements are used to measure the extent to which a person is chronically aroused leading to impaired functionality.

A person's belief that smoking has a calming effect on him/her is measured in this scale with three statements and a seven-point Likert-like response format.

Seven statements are used to assess the degree to which a person has an affective disorder characterized by feelings of hopelessness, loneliness, and poor self-esteem.

Seven statements are used to measure the degree that a person indicates experiencing negative physiological and emotional symptoms, most likely as a reaction to stress.

Twelve, seven-point statements are used to measure the degree to which a person describes several specific examples of socially embarrassing circumstances as being of "bad" if they were experienced.

Twelve Likert-type statements are used to assess the extent to which a person expresses emotional instability with symptoms such as wide mood swings, irritability, and nervousness. Burroughs (Burroughs 2005; Burroughs and Rindfleisch 2002) used a yes/no response format.

Three, seven-point uni-polar items are used to measure the extent to which a person is experiencing a state of psychological tension and is troubled by it. Depending upon the scale stem and the context in which it is used, the scale might be used as a measure of cognitive dissonance.

Six, nine point uni-polar items are used to measure how much a person reports having a feeling characterized as pleasant but with a low level of arousal. The scale was referred to as feelings-of-relaxation and felt relaxation by Gorn et al. (2004).

Various versions of the scale have been used to measure the degree of negative affect one has toward some specified stimulus. Some of the scales differ in their temporal instructions while others vary in the items used. The items can be used to measure one's mood state at a particular point in time or, at the other extreme, reference to a year's time may be used as something more like a trait measure of affect. Richins' (1991) version in particular is somewhat different in that it focuses just on a fear emotion rather than a broader negative affect. Similarly, Beatty and Ferrell (1998) were interested in the level of negative affect felt during a particular shopping trip and used a three item, seven-point version of the scale.

Three, seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the level of anxiety and loss of control felt by the client regarding its working relationship with its advertising agency.