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I really appreciate your marketing scales database online. It is an important resource for both our students and our researchers as well. Since my copies of the original books are slowly disintegrating due to the intensive use, I am happy that you are making them available in this way. It is very helpful in the search for viable constructs on which to do sound scientific research.
Dr. Ingmar Leijen
Vrije Universiteit University, Amsterdam


This scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the extent to which a person believes that an advertisement is responsible for helping him/her to be more willing to consider other views than his/her preconceptions about some object. The scale was called resistance by Smith, Chen, and Yang (2008) because they reverse-scored each item.

Nine, nine-point statements are used to assess the value placed by a person on an understanding of and desire to protect the welfare of all people and nature.

The degree of openness one has in general toward stimuli that are puzzling, indefinite, or less than clear is measured using this twelve-item, seven-point Likert-type scale.

Sixteen Likert-type statements are purported to measure an individual's tendency to interpret situations that cannot be adequately categorized (ambiguous) as sources of threat because of a lack of sufficient cues.  Although the construct is more popularly known as tolerance for ambiguity, the way it was scored by Richardson, Jain, and Dick (1996) was measuring the opposite tendency.