You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Search Now


Measuring is complex and critical for research in marketing, advertising, and consumer psychology. These books are excellent tools for researchers and professionals of those areas that need to find reliable and valid scales for their research. They have helped me save time and consider new constructs in my academic research.
Juan Fernando Tavera
University of Antioquia, COLOMBIA


This scale has three, seven-point Likert-type items that measure the extent to which a person believes that an advertisement is responsible for helping him/her to be more willing to consider other views than his/her preconceptions about some object. The scale was called resistance by Smith, Chen, and Yang (2008) because they reverse-scored each item.

Nine, nine-point statements are used to assess the value placed by a person on an understanding of and desire to protect the welfare of all people and nature.

The degree of openness one has in general toward stimuli that are puzzling, indefinite, or less than clear is measured using this twelve-item, seven-point Likert-type scale.

Sixteen Likert-type statements are purported to measure an individual's tendency to interpret situations that cannot be adequately categorized (ambiguous) as sources of threat because of a lack of sufficient cues.  Although the construct is more popularly known as tolerance for ambiguity, the way it was scored by Richardson, Jain, and Dick (1996) was measuring the opposite tendency.