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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


The scale has four, seven-point items that are intended to measure a consumer's expectation that a set of benefits are characteristic of a particular financial planner.

The scale is composed of four, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure the degree to which a person is satisfied with the institution where he/she received some formal education.

A multi-item, seven-point semantic differential is used to measure a consumer's assessment of a specified person's competency and training as a source of information about a particular product. Netemeyer and Bearden (1992) used a five-item scale to measure expertise of a personal source of information (retail employee), and Tripp, Jensen, and Carlson (1994) measured the expertise of celebrity endorsers using a six-item scale. Dellaert and Stremersch (2005) used their version of the scale to measure a person's evaluation his/her expertise in configuring a computer. Adjei, Noble, and Noble (2010) used a set of four items twice, once with respect to one's own experitse and once with respect to others from an online forum.

A four-item, seven-point Likert-type scale is used to measure the degree to which a person thinks the service received was performed properly. As used by Andaleeb and Basu (1994), the scale relates to the quality of service received from a car repair establishment.