You are here

Scale Reviews

Find reliable measures for use in your questionnaires. Search Now


This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin


The scale is composed of four statements that attempt to assess the utility derived from the perceived economic value of a particular product. One way the scale is distinguished from that of a satisfaction scale is that it could be applied at various stages during the purchase decision process whereas satisfaction is usually measured after the decision.

A person's attitude about a retailer's performance, with the emphasis on how low and competitive its prices tend to be, is measured in this scale using three, seven-point Likert-type items.

The scale is composed of three, open-ended items intended to measure the price(s) a consumer mentally links to some specific product. Grewal et al. (1998) referred to the scale as internal reference price.

The scale is composed of three, five-point Likert-type statements attempting to capture a consumer's subjective sense of a product's price with an emphasis on how expensive it is.

It is a six-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measuring a consumer's inclination to buy brands that have "two-for-one" offers despite the amount of money being saved. This measures a general interest in the deals rather than the likelihood that the behavior occurs for any particular product category. Lichtenstein, Netemeyer, and Burton (1995; Lichtenstein, Burton, and Netemeyer 1997) referred to the scale as buy one - get one free proneness while Burton et al. (1998) called theirs one-free proneness.

Six, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the time and effort expended by a consumer in selecting a bank in which to open an account.

This six-item, seven-point Likert-type scale measures a consumer's tendency to buy the brands that are on sale. This measures a general tendency rather than the likelihood that the behavior occurs for any particular product category. Given this, Lichtenstein and colleagues (1993, 1995, 1997; Burton et al. 1998, 1999) referred to the scale as sale proneness.

The scale is composed of six, seven-point Likert-type statements that measure a person's quality-related opinion of products produced in a certain country.

Three statements with a Likert-type response format are used to measure a consumer's attitude about a specific sales promotion device, the emphasis being on the belief that the deal results in a monetary savings.

Five, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure a consumer's evaluation of an offer that has been presented to him/her. Given the phrasing of one of the items, the scale is most suited for an offer that has to do with an event or cause which a consumer has been asked to support in some way and has the potential to "make a difference" to someone or something the consumer cares about.