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Testimonial

This scales book is a classic in psychometrics. It is instrumental for survey researchers in the fields of advertising, marketing, consumer psychology, and other related fields that rely largely on attitudinal measures. My copy has gotten me through years of field research by helping provide testable, reliable scales.
Angeline Close Scheinbaum, Ph.D.
University of Texas at Austin

value

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the degree to which a person considers the normal price charged for a particular good, service, or activity make the deal a good value.

Seven-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the perceived value of a deal involving a certain product offered at a certain price. The product examined in the study by Urbany, Bearden, and Weilbaker (1988) was televisions and a three-item scale was employed. In the study by Grewal, Marmorstein, and Sharma (1996), a four-item version of the scale was used to evaluate a shirt.

Four items are employed to measure the perceived value of a deal given a certain product offered at a certain price. All of the studies employed seven-point response formats except Burton and Lichtenstein (1988; Lichtenstein and Bearden 1989) who used nine-point scales.

Seven, seven-point items are used to measure the degree to which a consumer expresses having the ability to judge "good deals" across brands and stores, especially when it comes to grocery shopping.

Four, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure the degree to which a product is viewed as being priced substantially higher than what was expected. The product examined by Urbany and colleagues (1997) was an apartment.

Five, five-point Likert-type items are used to measure a customer's perception of a store's policies that make it more advantageous for people to shop there, such as carrying high-quality products, having convenient parking and hours, and taking credit cards.

Four open-ended questions are used to measure a consumer's beliefs regarding various aspects of a product's price.

Thirteen, seven-point Likert-type items measure the degree to which a consumer believes that prices for different brands of the same product vary a lot within grocery stores as well as across stores.

Four, five-point Likert-type items are intended to measure a shopping orientation characterized by a consumer's focus on buying products that are low priced, on sale, or are considered to be good values for the money.

Three, seven point semantic differentials measure how important one person believes he/she is to another. Because Howard, Gengler, and Jain (1995) administered this scale after subjects had received a compliment-like manipulation (name remembering), the scale was viewed as capturing a flattery-type construct. However, in another context, the scale might be used to measure what a person thinks another person's attitude is toward him or her, with an emphasis more on general affect rather than something specific such as flattery.