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As a researcher, it's important to use validated scales to ensure reliability and improve interpretation of research results. The Marketing Scales database provides an easy, unified source to find and reference scales, including information on reliability and validity.
Krista Holt
Senior Director, Research & Design, Vital Findings


A person's evaluation of some positive aspects of products made in another country are measured using this ten-point scale. The final versions of the scale used in the analysis of German and Korean products had three items, but only two of the items were the same. This scale was referred to as General Product Attributes (positive attributes relating to product image) by Parameswaran and Pisharodi (1994).

A person's attitude about a certain product offered at a certain price is measured in these similar set of scales. As used by Lichtenstein and Bearden (1989), the scale is composed of four bipolar adjectives and one Likert-type item, each of which employs a nine-point response format. Three-item, seven-point versions of the scale have also been used (Biswas and Burton 1993; Inman, Peter, and Raghubir 1997; Lichtenstein, Burton, and Karson 1991), as has a four-item, seven-point version (Bobinski, Cox, and Cox 1996).

Three, seven-point semantic differentials are used to measure a person's evaluation of an organization, particularly in terms of what the person thinks its value is to society.

Three, five-point semantic differentials are used to measure a consumer's attitude toward a brand with an emphasis on the perceived status aspects of the product.

Four, five-point Likert-type statements are used to measure the attitude a physician has about the development of cosmetic pharmaceuticals, with a special emphasis on the value the products have for his or her patients.

This is a five-item, three-point scale measuring a consumer's satisfaction with the pricing of a specified product.

This is a six-item, seven-point Likert-like scale measuring the perceived value of an offer consisting of a particular product for a particular price. The scale was used to study both calculators and typewriters.

This is a six-point, Likert-type scale that measures a person's belief that one should shop around before buying. A three-item version of this scale was called propensity to shop by Lumpkin (1985). A four-item version by Hawes and Lumpkin (1984) was referred to as careful shopping.

This is a four-item, six-point, Likert-type scale that measures a person's interest in ads involving sales. It was referred to as advertising special shopper by Lumpkin (1985).

Ten unipolar items are used with a six-point response format to measure the use fulness and enjoyment a person perceives in an object such as a good or service.